(mechanical property) is defined as resistance to penetration by a solid body. Effects of this type can be: Pressure, rubbing and scratching. As it represents a complex parameter, the term 'hardness' is always to be used in conjunction with a test method used, such as scratch resistance or indentation resistance. The oscillation method (e.g. by using König's pendulum method in accordance with DIN 53 157), crack testing and indentation testing (e.g. the Bucholz method in accordance with DIN 53 153) are useful for determining the hardness of lacquer films