are chemical compounds of fatty acids with single-value or multi-value high molecular alcohols and are divided into naturally occurring (animal, vegetable and mineral waxes), natural by-products of the chemical industry, and synthetic waxes. Beeswax is an animal wax, melts at around 65°C and is malleable. It's natural colour is light yellow to browny red. It can be made very light with bleaching. Carnauba wax comes from the leaves of the carnauba wax, melts at around 83 - 90°C, is harder than beeswax ('hard wax') and yellowy green to grey in colour. Significant mineral waxes are ceresin or earth wax (melting point 40 ... 80°C) and montan wax (melting point 70 ... 90°C), that are extracted from crude oil or, as may apply, lignite and are the basis for very hard, bright industrial waxes. Wax gives wood a dull, delicate, silky matt gloss. The finish, however, is not water-, heat-, or scratch-resistant. As a result a weak shellac finish or polish is applied after waxing. However, if too much wax is applied, adhesion is adversely affected. It can be improved by adding resin. Concentrated cellulose preparations do not dry on wax, but they are suitable as a base for waxes if used together and then wax is applied on top. The dissolved wax is applied by brushes or cloths. Superfluous wax is removed with a clean cloth. After drying the surface is brushed or, as may apply, rubbed off with a medium brush or with horsehair. The surface is then given its dull glaze by rubbing off with a clean woollen cloth